May 12th, 2012 Twelve Principles of Efficiency
Harrington Emerson proposed 12 principles of efficiency:
1. Clearly defined ideals
2. Common sense
3. Competent counsel
5. The fair deal
6. Reliable, immediate and adequate records
8. Standards and schedules
9. Standardized conditions
10. Standardized operations
11. Written standard-practice instructions
12 principles of Efficiency
In United States Congress after the hearing about problem of railway transportation expenses, emmerson published him " principle of 12 letters efficiency " composing. About efficiency problem, it is the research that Harrington Emerson has effect most in lifetime, he still is called to be up to now accordingly " the big flamen of efficiency " . He is in " efficiency is to run the base with salary " the exists generally waste in system of industry of whole at that time United States is aimed at in one book and efficiency are low the view that this two big drawback offerred him. He thinks, the productivity of a country basically does not depend on the state of its rich, and depend on " lofty aspirations and great ideals, strive for success and the desire that obtain money " . Because the United States has money natural resources and drive labour is obtained bear successful element, make it develops the industrial powerful nation that becomes the world to go up so. But, because efficiency is low the waste with resource, the United States is losing its dominant position, among them a the biggest question is devoid organization. Above thought is in Harrington Emerson " 12 efficiency principle " got be elaboratinged further in one book. This book uses the length of one chapter to try to explain to each principle. The main content of these 12 principles is:
(1) wants those who make clear to have " ideal " , want to have very specific target namely. Empty principle makes clear a regulation, the person that joins an organization must have unanimous view to ideal, and be of one mind assist and will come true it. Emmerson did not use the contemporary managing that what academic middling uses " target " one word, but it is same that its meaning basically is the same as a target. He thinks, make comprise the member understands and assume common cause, the conflict that can reduce constituent interior, punch-drunk, fantasticality and lose the issue such as the purpose.
(2) the 2nd principle is " common sense " , often ask administrator inspects all sorts of problems and them namely mutual the relation between, abound technical knowledge, solicit all sorts of proposals actively.
(3) chooses " capable advisory " , build capable give advice team, take the kind of collective decision, so that have the effect with sufficient negotiation and significant production.
(4) should have discipline. This is to achieve other the foundation of 11 principles, to be subject to and abide by an organization regulations provided a basis, make comprise make a system and eradicative anarchy.
(5) " the fairness that need a person " , want justice to handle each work. Want to accomplish this, administrator must be had sympathize with a heart, ponder over ability and just and incorruptible spirit, depend on namely the capacity that administrator builds fairness and equal system in all activities that treat a worker. This is not one kind bestows or the relation of altruism, however the relation of a kind of mutual benefit.
(6) " record " , should have to each job namely reliable, seasonable, accurate with abiding original record.
(7) is executed attemper effectively, undertake unity arrange and be controllinged to production namely, make sectional job obedient integral requirement, in an attempt to finishs the job quickly.
(8) makes standard and schedule, in order to determine method of standard working hours, job and working sequence.
(9) is created " the condition of standardization " , although working environment is standardized, in order to reduce the waste of manpower and money.
(10) determines the operation method of standardization, in order to improve work efficiency.
(11) makes the written manual of standard course of action, undertake correct guidance with written form to handling a movement.
(12) is right efficient manufacturing job is executed " efficiency pay " (incentive plan) , be opposite all reducing namely cost, improve quality, increase crop, spare time, all give proper pay. Aimosengen occupies his experience when adviser to try adequately to explain these 12 principles, it is the detailed specification that makes to his system place.
Tell wraparoundly, these 12 principles of Emmerson, before 5 concern about personnel, hind 7 are about method, system and system. These principles are not isolated, supplement each other, the cooperates to form administrative system each other foundation between them. And these 12 all principles are with linear, the organization of give advice form is a foundation.